Changing root password on Solaris 11.3 x86

I’m posting this only because the process has changed a bit since I did it back in the days. Because I’m not using Solaris on SPARC, there’s no STOP-A, boot -s, etc.

Just like back in the days with Solaris 8, you would need to boot with a cdrom or PXE or jumpstart, whatever method you have. Afterwards, you take the shell option. Obviously, you’re not installing the OS.

Solaris 11 uses ZFS, not UFS so you can’t directly mount a partition. You need import a pool instead.

mkdir /b
zpool import -f -R /a rpool
zfs set mountpoint=legacy rpool/ROOT/solaris
mount -F zfs rpool/ROOT/solaris /b
vi /b/etc/shadow

Edit the shadow file

Find your username and remove the password hash

Change your user id
username:whateverthehashis:12345::::::23456
to
username::12345::::::23456

Then we will need to allow empty passwords at login

$ vi /b/etc/default/login
Change the line:
PASSREQ=YES
to
PASSREQ=NO

umount /b
zfs set mountpoint=/ rpool/ROOT/solaris
zpool export rpool
init 6

When the system boots, you should be able to log in as root and just press return for the password. If you’re logging in through SSH, you won’t need to enter a password.

Hope this saved you some time!

WordPress is under attack! Watch it! Password Protect it!

What? What do you mean? There’s already a password. Yes, you need to log in when you want to put up a new blog post or do maintenance of some sort. However, that doesn’t mean that you can’t have an additional layer of protection. Not only can you have it, WordPress actually recommends it here: https://codex.wordpress.org/Brute_Force_Attacks

I looked in my nginx access log and I saw a bunch of messages that looked like this:

95.219.148.136 - - [16/Nov/2017:06:34:33 -0800] "GET /wp-login.php HTTP/1.1" 402 195 "-" "Mozilla/5.0 (Windows NT 6.1; WOW64; rv:40.0) Gecko/20100101 Firefox/40.1"
95.219.148.136 - - [16/Nov/2017:06:34:34 -0800] "GET / HTTP/1.1" 200 21587 "-" "Mozilla/5.0 (Windows NT 6.1; WOW64; rv:40.0) Gecko/20100101 Firefox/40.1"
202.152.71.21 - - [16/Nov/2017:06:40:48 -0800] "GET /wp-login.php HTTP/1.1" 402 195 "-" "Mozilla/5.0 (Windows NT 6.1; WOW64; rv:40.0) Gecko/20100101 Firefox/40.1"
202.152.71.21 - - [16/Nov/2017:06:40:49 -0800] "GET / HTTP/1.1" 200 21589 "-" "Mozilla/5.0 (Windows NT 6.1; WOW64; rv:40.0) Gecko/20100101 Firefox/40.1"
177.221.4.36 - - [16/Nov/2017:06:55:42 -0800] "GET /wp-login.php HTTP/1.1" 402 195 "-" "Mozilla/5.0 (Windows NT 6.1; WOW64; rv:40.0) Gecko/20100101 Firefox/40.1"
177.221.4.36 - - [16/Nov/2017:06:55:42 -0800] "GET / HTTP/1.1" 200 21589 "-" "Mozilla/5.0 (Windows NT 6.1; WOW64; rv:40.0) Gecko/20100101 Firefox/40.1"

After doing some investigation, it appeard to be the sathurbot attacking my blogsite. It’s some sort of distributed piece of malware that attacks poorly maintained or blogs with weak passwords. The malware tries to attack the wp-login and something else. You can read more about it here: https://www.welivesecurity.com/2017/04/06/sathurbot-distributed-wordpress-password-attack/.

The first thing I did to counter this issue was configure Cloudflare to under attack mode. This gives the client a short delay when connecting to your site so that can’t get to the file. This should stop the entries in the log completely, immediately. Since I don’t want users to see the delay all of the time, I decided after the attacks slowed to have nginx password protect the file so that when trying to request it, nginx will ask for a password as well. This way, you’ll need to authenticate twice to get into WordPress, but it’s okay. The extra trouble gives me peace of mind that I’ll less likely be attacked.

With nginx, I did it this way:

location ^~ /wp-login.php {
 auth_basic "Administrator Login";
 auth_basic_user_file /etc/nginx/conf.d/.htpasswd;
 include fastcgi.conf;
 fastcgi_intercept_errors on;
 fastcgi_pass php-wphandler;
 fastcgi_buffers 16 16k;
 fastcgi_buffer_size 32k;
}

The .htpasswd is a hashed file. You can create it with the htpasswd command that comes with the apache2-utils package. The file would look something like this:

alton:[email protected]$SDFapr1$yDoxiXVW$aFe

Now in my logs, I get 401 messages instead of 402 messages.

172.68.242.50 - - [29/Nov/2017:09:36:50 -0800] "GET /wp-login.php HTTP/1.1" 401 195 "-" "Mozilla/5.0 (Windows NT 6.1; WOW64; rv:40.0) Gecko/20100101 Firefox/40.1" "134.196.23.66"
172.68.246.96 - - [29/Nov/2017:09:45:48 -0800] "GET /wp-login.php HTTP/1.1" 401 195 "-" "Mozilla/5.0 (Windows NT 6.1; WOW64; rv:40.0) Gecko/20100101 Firefox/40.1" "193.93.187.11"
162.158.91.51 - - [29/Nov/2017:09:49:22 -0800] "GET /wp-login.php HTTP/1.1" 401 195 "-" "Mozilla/5.0 (Windows NT 6.1; WOW64; rv:40.0) Gecko/20100101 Firefox/40.1" "93.172.55.76"
141.101.77.120 - - [29/Nov/2017:10:08:03 -0800] "GET /wp-login.php HTTP/1.1" 401 195 "-" "Mozilla/5.0 (Windows NT 6.1; WOW64; rv:40.0) Gecko/20100101 Firefox/40.1" "41.100.125.248"

I also know that they’re less likely to hack my site. 🙂

Happy blogging!