Using 2 ISPs at home at the same time! Tomato MultiWAN – works great! (Video)

Why do you really need this? When Shibby first put out the firmware with MultiWAN support, I questioned why someone would pay for 2 service providers. Too much bandwidth utilization? If you need more bandwidth, just upgrade your line with your current ISP. It would be cheaper than getting a new line!

Do you need reliability? When you work from home and need to be connected to the Internet for your work and it’s not available, that’s when you might look into a solution like this one! I have Comcast Business. Does that help? No, not really when the problems is with the infrastructure and not a misconfiguration or something internal. It just means that when you call, you talk to someone a little more competent and you can get a person quicker than going through the phone system. You can have someone come on-site a little faster too. That said, the service is the same as that of all other consumers. After a few rains and a couple of Comcast outages (not exactly outages, but huge degradations in service), I started to think about getting a second provider. Luckily, in San Francisco, we have a few options for service providers here. I happen to be lucky enough to have access to 2 different cable providers, Comcast and Wave Broadband (formerly Astound). I used Astound before. It was not bad. My experience was not nearly as bad as what the Yelp reviews say. I’ve now had them for a couple of weeks and still have the same opinion. They seem to be just fine.

So, moving onto the implementation. As you can see from the screenshot, Shibby makes it easy! First configuration the VLAN. It points to a link for where to do it – in advanced settings. You can look at the next screenshot to see an example of the VLAN being set up. I’m using LAN port 1 for the 2nd WAN port.

In this screen however, You might notice my “Load Balance Weight”. The problem with my service providers is that Comcast gives me unlimited bandwidth. Wave Broadband does not. Because of this, I want more connections to go out of the first WAN link and Shibby gives us a couple of ways to do it. First is with “Load Balance Weight”. I’m just setting the 1st link to 2 and 2nd WAN link to 1. You can play with the numbers to try finding your desired balance.

Screen Shot 2016-04-29 at 6.43.42 PM

Screen Shot 2016-04-29 at 6.43.01 PM

Another place to do load balancing is by pinning a particular host to a particular WAN link. For example, I have some traffic I want out of 1 WAN link and some out of another. This way, I can tell my highest traffic hosts to go through WAN1 while some others through WAN2.

Screen Shot 2016-04-29 at 6.47.37 PM

Here’s a status window to show that I have both WANs connected.

Screen Shot 2016-05-01 at 4.23.59 PM

Lastly, you can see from different searches of what’s my IP, that both WAN links are being utilized.

Screen Shot 2016-05-01 at 4.29.15 PM Screen Shot 2016-05-01 at 4.29.26 PM

Please post your comments and share!

apt-get cheatsheet




nixCraft » Debian Linux apt-get package management cheat sheet » Print


– nixCraft – http://www.cyberciti.biz/tips

Debian Linux apt-get package management cheat sheet

Posted By LinuxTitli On May 9, 2005 @ 12:21 pm In Debian Linux, Howto, Linux, Sys admin, Tips, Ubuntu Linux | 6 Comments

[1]

Both Debian and Ubuntu Linux provides a number of package management tools. This article summaries package management command along with it usage and examples for you.

(1) apt-get : APT is acronym for Advanced Package Tool. It supports installing packages over internet (ftp or http). You can also upgrade all packages in single operations, which makes it even more attractive.

(2) dpkg : Debian packaging tool which can be use to install, query, uninstall packages.

(3) Gui tools:

You can also try GUI based or high level interface to the Debian GNU/Linux package system. Following list summaries them:
(1) aptitude [2]: It is a text-based interface to the Debian GNU/Linux package system.
(2) synaptic [3]: GUI front end for APT

Red hat Linux package names generally end in .rpml similarly Debian package names end in .deb, for example:
apache_1.3.31-6_i386.deb

apache : Package name
1.3.31-6 : Version number
i386 : Hardware Platform on which this package will run (i386 == intel x86 based system)
.deb : Extension that suggest it is a Debian package

Remember whenever I refer .deb file it signifies complete file name, and whenever I refer package name it must be first part of .deb file. For example when I refer to package sudo it means sudo only and not the .deb file i.e. sudo_1.6.7p5-2_i386.deb. However do not worry you can find out complete debian package list with the following command:

apt-cache search {package-name}

apt-get add a new package

Add a new package called samba
Syntax: apt-get install {package-name}

# apt-get install samba

apt-get remove the package called samba but keep the configuration files

Syntax: apt-get remove {package-name}

# apt-get remove samba

apt-get remove (erase) package and configuration file

Syntax: apt-get –purge remove {package-name}

# apt-get --purge remove samba

apt-get Update (upgrade) package

Syntax: apt-get upgrade

To upgrade individual package called sudo, enter:
# apt-get install sudo

apt-get display available software updates

Following command will display the list of all available upgrades (updates) using -u option, if you decided to upgrade all of the shown packages just hit ‘y’

# apt-get upgrade samba

However if you just wish to upgrade individual package then use apt-get command and it will take care of rest of your worries:
Syntax: apt-get install {package-name}

dpkg command to get package information such as description of package, version etc.

Syntax: dpkg –info {.deb-package-name}

# dpkg --info sudo_1.6.7p5-2_i386.deb | less

List all installed packages

Syntax: dpkg -l

# dpkg -l

To list individual package try such as apache

# dpkg -l apache

You can also use this command to see (verify) if package sudo is install or not (note that if package is installed then it displays package name along with small description):

# dpkg -l | grep -i 'sudo'

To list packages related to the apache:

# dpkg -l '*apache*'

List files provided (or owned) by the installed package (for example what files are provided by the installed samba package)
Syntax: dpkg -L {package-name}

# dpkg -L samba

(H) List files provided (or owned) by the package (for example what files are provided by the uninstalled sudo package)

Syntax: dpkg –contents {.deb-package-name}

# dpkg --contents sudo_1.6.7p5-2_i386.deb

Find, what package owns the file /bin/netstat?

Syntax: dpkg -S {/path/to/file}

# dpkg -S /bin/netstat

Search for package or package description

Some times you don’t know package name but aware of some keywords to search the package. Once you got package name you can install it using apt-get -i {package-name} command:
Syntax: apt-cache search “Text-to-search”

Find out all the Debian package which can be used for Intrusion Detection

# apt-cache search "Intrusion Detection"

Find out all sniffer packages

# apt-cache search sniffer

Find out if Debian package is installed or not (status)

Syntax: dpkg -s {package-name} | grep Status

# dpkg -s samba| grep Status

List ach dependency a package has…

Display a listing of each dependency a package has and all the possible other packages that can fulfill that dependency. You hardly use this command as apt-get does decent job fulfill all package dependencies.

Syntax: apt-cache depends package

Display dependencies for lsof and mysql-server packages:

# apt-cache depends lsof
# apt-cache depends mysql-server

Further reading


Article printed from nixCraft: http://www.cyberciti.biz/tips

URL to article: http://www.cyberciti.biz/tips/linux-debian-package-management-cheat-sheet.html

URLs in this post:

[1] Image: http://www.cyberciti.biz/tips/category/debian-linux

[2] aptitude: http://www.cyberciti.biz/images/blogs/tips_tricks/aptitude030505.jpg

[3] synaptic: http://www.cyberciti.biz/images/blogs/tips_tricks/synaptic.png

[4] cheat sheet: http://www.cyberciti.biz/howto/question/linux/dpkg-cheat-sheet.php

[5] cheat-sheet: http://www.cyberciti.biz/howto/question/linux/apt-get-cheat-sheet.php

[6] APT and Dpkg Quick Reference Sheet: http://www.cyberciti.biz/tips/ref/apt-dpkg-ref.html

Copyright © 2004-2009 nixCraft. All rights reserved.



How to fix networking after cloning an Ubuntu 8 VM

Stolen from: http://weblog.jamisbuck.org/2008/8/15/cloning-ubuntu-hardy-image-in-vmware-fusion

* “sudo hostname blah”, to set the hostname. This doesn’t change it permanently, so you’ll also want to:
* “sudo vim /etc/hostname”. Change the contents of the file to the hostname you want. Then:
* “sudo vim /etc/hosts”. Replace all mentions of the old hostname with the new hostname.
* “sudo vim /etc/udev/rules.d/70-persistent-net.rules”. There will be two entries in this file. The first points eth0 at the old MAC address, and the second points eth1 at the new. Go ahead and delete the first entry, and change “eth1” to “eth0” in the second (and now only) entry.
* “sudo shutdown -r now” to restart your virtual machine.

Zimbra 4.5.6 to 5.0.10 upgrade notes

Things I needed to do for Zimbra to work – 4.5.6 to 5.0.10 upgrade.

1) Mysql root/user passwords need to match what’s in /opt/zimbra/conf/localconfig.xml. I played around with mine and managed to screw this up.
2) Since I changed the hostname, ldap wouldn’t start. To fix this, I had to rebuild the SSL certificates. You can do this here: http://wiki.zimbra.com/index.php?title=SSL_Certificate_Problems – I had some trouble following directions – note the version numbers – they’re important. 🙂
3) Make sure that 127.0.0.1 is in zimbraMtaMyNetworks. Ref: http://wiki.zimbra.com/index.php?title=ZimbraMtaMyNetworks – if not, you won’t be able to send mail out – it will say relaying denied.

How to Flash an AirLink101 AR430w router with DD-WRT firmware

1. Connect cable to WAN port and power on router

Download contents from: http://www.dd-wrt.com/dd-wrtv2/down.php?path=downloads%2Frelease+candidates%2FDD-WRT+v24+RC7%2FAtheros+WiSoc%2FAirlink+101+AR430W/

2. Set your host IP to 192.168.20.80 (Don’t bother with any values in DNS Server/Alternate DNS)
3. ping -t 192.168.20.81
4. Run PuTTY/PuttyTel (YOU MUST USE PUTTY – SecureCRT and the regular Windows telnet DON’T WORK!) and set port to 9000 with Telnet option. – on the 2nd ping, hit open to connect to the router on 192.168.20.81. If you miss this, you may need to reset the router and try again.
You’ll see:
You’ll probably get these messages:
/releases/svn.porsche/redboot-ar231x/redboot-ar231x/redboot_cobra/ecos/packages/devs/eth/mips/ar531x/current/src/ae531xecos.c#390:ae531x_send AHB ERROR: AR531X_DEBUG_ERROR = 00000145
/releases/svn.porsche/redboot-ar231x/redboot-ar231x/redboot_cobra/ecos/packages/devs/eth/mips/ar531x/current/src/ae531xecos.c#393:ae531x_send AHB ERROR status_4 = 00000145

It’s safe to ignore them.

5. Started TtftpSrv in background.

In the screen, run:
load ap61.ram
go

6. change host IP to 192.168.1.23 and then change your command prompt window to run: “ping -t 192.168.1.1”

7. with putty, telnet to 192.168.1.1 9000
You’l see: DD-WRT>

Unfortunately, after this, it’s a little shaky as to what I did. If you do all of these steps in this order, it should work.

ip_address -l 192.168.1.1 -h 192.168.1.23
fconfig bootp false
bootp: Setting to false
Update RedBoot non-volatile configuration – continue (y/n)? y
… Erase from 0xbffe0000-0xbfff0000: .
… Program from 0x80ff0000-0x81000000 at 0xbffe0000: .
DD-WRT> fis init
About to initialize [format] FLASH image system – continue (y/n)? y
*** Initialize FLASH Image System
… Erase from 0xbffe0000-0xbfff0000: .
… Program from 0x80ff0000-0x81000000 at 0xbffe0000: .

DD-WRT> ip_address -l 192.168.1.1 -h 192.168.1.23
IP: 192.168.1.1/255.255.255.0, Gateway: 0.0.0.0
Default server: 192.168.1.23
DD-WRT> load -r -b %{FREEMEMLO} ap61.rom
Using default protocol (TFTP)
Raw file loaded 0x80080000-0x800a8717, assumed entry at 0x80080000

fis create -l 0x30000 -e 0xbfc00000 RedBoot
An image named ‘RedBoot’ exists – continue (y/n)? y
… Erase from 0xbfc00000-0xbfc30000: …
… Program from 0x80080000-0x800a8718 at 0xbfc00000: …
… Erase from 0xbffe0000-0xbfff0000: .
… Program from 0x807f0000-0x80800000 at 0xbffe0000: .

reset

DD-WRT> fis init
About to initialize [format] FLASH image system – continue (y/n)? y
*** Initialize FLASH Image System
… Erase from 0xbffe0000-0xbfff0000: .
… Program from 0x80ff0000-0x81000000 at 0xbffe0000: .

fconfig boot_script true
boot_script: Setting to true
Update RedBoot non-volatile configuration – continue (y/n)? y
… Erase from 0xbffe0000-0xbfff0000: .
… Program from 0x80ff0000-0x81000000 at 0xbffe0000: .
DD-WRT> fconfig boot_script_timeout 3
boot_script_timeout: Setting to 3
Update RedBoot non-volatile configuration – continue (y/n)? y
… Erase from 0xbffe0000-0xbfff0000: .
… Program from 0x80ff0000-0x81000000 at 0xbffe0000: .
DD-WRT>

DD-WRT> load -v -r -b 0x80041000 linux.bin

You should see something like this:

|——————————————————————————-
Raw file loaded 0x80041000-0x803cefff, assumed entry at 0x80041000————–
DD-WRT> ———————————————————————-
——————————————————————————–
——————————————————————————–
——————————————————————————–

Then run:
fis create linux
This will take forever. This would probably be a good time to set your telnet session so that putty doesn’t timeout and die.

Here’s a screenshot:

putty config to set the timeout

DD-WRT> fis create linux——————————————————–
——————————————————————————–
——————————————————————————–
… Erase from 0xbfc30000-0xbffbe000: …………………………………………………
… Program from 0x80041000-0x803cf000 at 0xbfc30000: …………………………………………………
… Erase from 0xbffe0000-0xbfff0000: .
… Program from 0x80ff0000-0x81000000 at 0xbffe0000: .
DD-WRT> DD-WRT> DD-WRT>

DD-WRT> fconfig
Run script at boot: true
Boot script:
Enter script, terminate with empty line
>> fis load -l linux
>> exec
>>
Boot script timeout (1000ms resolution): 3
Use BOOTP for network configuration: true
Default server IP address: 192.168.1.1
Console baud rate: 9600
GDB connection port: 9000
Force console for special debug messages: false
Network debug at boot time: false
Update RedBoot non-volatile configuration – continue (y/n)? y
… Erase from 0xbffe0000-0xbfff0000: .
… Program from 0x80ff0000-0x81000000 at 0xbffe0000: .

Please reference: http://www.dd-wrt.com/phpBB2/viewtopic.php?t=29779

and http://www.dd-wrt.com/phpBB2/viewtopic.php?t=23510&postdays=0&postorder=asc&start=240

and of course http://www.dd-wrt.com/dd-wrtv2/downloads/release%20candidates/DD-WRT%20v24%20RC7/Atheros%20WiSoc/Airlink%20101%20AR430W/flashing.txt

By the way, here’s the end result:

Airlink DD-WRT screenshot

list of vmkernel errors

You can get this from running: vmkerrcode -l

VMK_ReturnStatus table for VMware ESX Server, Build #64607
Name Dec Hex errno equiv Description
——————————————————————————-
VMK_OK 0 0 OK Success
VMK_FAILURE 195887105 0xbad0001 EINVAL Failure
VMK_WOULD_BLOCK 195887106 0xbad0002 EAGAIN Would block
VMK_NOT_FOUND 195887107 0xbad0003 ENOENT Not found
VMK_BUSY 195887108 0xbad0004 EBUSY Busy
VMK_EXISTS 195887109 0xbad0005 EEXIST Already exists
VMK_LIMIT_EXCEEDED 195887110 0xbad0006 EFBIG Limit exceeded
VMK_BAD_PARAM 195887111 0xbad0007 EINVAL Bad parameter
VMK_METADATA_READ_ERROR 195887112 0xbad0008 EIO Metadata read error
VMK_METADATA_WRITE_ERROR 195887113 0xbad0009 EIO Metadata write error
VMK_IO_ERROR 195887114 0xbad000a EIO I/O error
VMK_READ_ERROR 195887115 0xbad000b EIO Read error
VMK_WRITE_ERROR 195887116 0xbad000c EIO Write error
VMK_INVALID_NAME 195887117 0xbad000d ENAMETOOLONG Invalid name
VMK_INVALID_HANDLE 195887118 0xbad000e EBADF Invalid handle
VMK_INVALID_ADAPTER 195887119 0xbad000f ENODEV No such SCSI adapter
VMK_INVALID_TARGET 195887120 0xbad0010 ENODEV No such target on adapter
VMK_INVALID_PARTITION 195887121 0xbad0011 ENXIO No such partition on target
VMK_INVALID_FS 195887122 0xbad0012 ENXIO No filesystem on the device
VMK_INVALID_MEMMAP 195887123 0xbad0013 EFAULT Memory map mismatch
VMK_NO_MEMORY 195887124 0xbad0014 ENOMEM Out of memory
VMK_NO_MEMORY_RETRY 195887125 0xbad0015 ENOMEM Out of memory (ok to retry)
VMK_NO_RESOURCES 195887126 0xbad0016 ENOMEM Out of resources
VMK_NO_FREE_HANDLES 195887127 0xbad0017 EMFILE No free handles
VMK_NUM_HANDLES_EXCEEDED 195887128 0xbad0018 ENFILE Exceeded maximum number of allowed handles
VMK_DEPRECATED_NO_FREE_PTR_BLOCKS195887129 0xbad0019 ENOSPC No free pointer blocks (deprecated)
VMK_DEPRECATED_NO_FREE_DATA_BLOCKS195887130 0xbad001a ENOSPC No free data blocks (deprecated)
VMK_CORRUPT_REDOLOG 195887131 0xbad001b EBADF Corrupt RedoLog
VMK_STATUS_PENDING 195887132 0xbad001c EAGAIN Status pending
VMK_STATUS_FREE 195887133 0xbad001d EAGAIN Status free
VMK_UNSUPPORTED_CPU 195887134 0xbad001e ENODEV Unsupported CPU
VMK_NOT_SUPPORTED 195887135 0xbad001f ENOSYS Not supported
VMK_TIMEOUT 195887136 0xbad0020 ETIMEDOUT Timeout
VMK_READ_ONLY 195887137 0xbad0021 EROFS Read only
VMK_RESERVATION_CONFLICT 195887138 0xbad0022 EAGAIN SCSI reservation conflict
VMK_FS_LOCKED 195887139 0xbad0023 EADDRINUSE File system locked
VMK_NOT_ENOUGH_SLOTS 195887140 0xbad0024 ENFILE Out of slots
VMK_INVALID_ADDRESS 195887141 0xbad0025 EFAULT Invalid address
VMK_NOT_SHARED 195887142 0xbad0026 ENOMEM Not shared
VMK_SHARED 195887143 0xbad0027 ENOMEM Page is shared
VMK_KSEG_PAIR_FLUSHED 195887144 0xbad0028 ENOMEM Kseg pair flushed
VMK_MAX_ASYNCIO_PENDING 195887145 0xbad0029 ENOMEM Max async I/O requests pending
VMK_VERSION_MISMATCH_MINOR 195887146 0xbad002a ENOSYS Minor version mismatch
VMK_VERSION_MISMATCH_MAJOR 195887147 0xbad002b ENOSYS Major version mismatch
VMK_IS_CONNECTED 195887148 0xbad002c EINVAL Already connected
VMK_IS_DISCONNECTED 195887149 0xbad002d ENOTCONN Already disconnected
VMK_IS_ENABLED 195887150 0xbad002e EINVAL Already enabled
VMK_IS_DISABLED 195887151 0xbad002f EINVAL Already disabled
VMK_NOT_INITIALIZED 195887152 0xbad0030 EINVAL Not initialized
VMK_WAIT_INTERRUPTED 195887153 0xbad0031 EINTR Wait interrupted
VMK_NAME_TOO_LONG 195887154 0xbad0032 ENAMETOOLONG Name too long
VMK_MISSING_FS_PES 195887155 0xbad0033 ENOTDIR VMFS volume missing physical extents
VMK_NICTEAMING_VALID_MASTER 195887156 0xbad0034 EINVAL NIC teaming master valid
VMK_NICTEAMING_SLAVE 195887157 0xbad0035 EEXIST NIC teaming slave
VMK_NICTEAMING_REGULAR_VMNIC 195887158 0xbad0036 EINVAL NIC teaming regular VMNIC
VMK_ABORT_NOT_RUNNING 195887159 0xbad0037 ECANCELED Abort not running
VMK_NOT_READY 195887160 0xbad0038 EIO Not ready
VMK_CHECKSUM_MISMATCH 195887161 0xbad0039 EIO Checksum mismatch
VMK_VLAN_NO_HW_ACCEL 195887162 0xbad003a EINVAL VLan HW Acceleration not supported
VMK_NO_VLAN_SUPPORT 195887163 0xbad003b EOPNOTSUPP VLan is not supported in vmkernel
VMK_NOT_VLAN_HANDLE 195887164 0xbad003c EINVAL Not a VLan handle
VMK_BAD_VLANID 195887165 0xbad003d EBADF Couldn’t retrieve VLan id
VMK_MIG_PROTO_ERROR 195887166 0xbad003e EINVAL Migration protocol error
VMK_NO_CONNECT 195887167 0xbad003f EIO No connection
VMK_SEGMENT_OVERLAP 195887168 0xbad0040 EINVAL Segment overlap
VMK_BAD_MPS 195887169 0xbad0041 EIO Error parsing MPS Table
VMK_BAD_ACPI 195887170 0xbad0042 EIO Error parsing ACPI Table
VMK_RESUME_ERROR 195887171 0xbad0043 EIO Failed to resume VM
VMK_NO_ADDRESS_SPACE 195887172 0xbad0044 ENOMEM Insufficient address space for operation
VMK_BAD_ADDR_RANGE 195887173 0xbad0045 EINVAL Bad address range
VMK_ENETDOWN 195887174 0xbad0046 ENETDOWN Network is down
VMK_ENETUNREACH 195887175 0xbad0047 ENETUNREACH Network unreachable
VMK_ENETRESET 195887176 0xbad0048 ENETRESET Network dropped connection on reset
VMK_ECONNABORTED 195887177 0xbad0049 ECONNABORTED Software caused connection abort
VMK_ECONNRESET 195887178 0xbad004a ECONNRESET Connection reset by peer
VMK_ENOTCONN 195887179 0xbad004b ENOTCONN Socket is not connected
VMK_ESHUTDOWN 195887180 0xbad004c ESHUTDOWN Can’t send after socket shutdown
VMK_ETOOMANYREFS 195887181 0xbad004d ETOOMANYREFS Too many references: can’t splice
VMK_ECONNREFUSED 195887182 0xbad004e ECONNREFUSED Connection refused
VMK_EHOSTDOWN 195887183 0xbad004f EHOSTDOWN Host is down
VMK_EHOSTUNREACH 195887184 0xbad0050 EHOSTUNREACH No route to host
VMK_EADDRINUSE 195887185 0xbad0051 EADDRINUSE Address already in use
VMK_BROKEN_PIPE 195887186 0xbad0052 EPIPE Broken pipe
VMK_NOT_A_DIRECTORY 195887187 0xbad0053 ENOTDIR Not a directory
VMK_IS_A_DIRECTORY 195887188 0xbad0054 EISDIR Is a directory
VMK_NOT_EMPTY 195887189 0xbad0055 ENOTEMPTY Directory not empty
VMK_NOT_IMPLEMENTED 195887190 0xbad0056 ENOSYS Not implemented
VMK_NO_SIGNAL_HANDLER 195887191 0xbad0057 EINVAL No signal handler
VMK_FATAL_SIGNAL_BLOCKED 195887192 0xbad0058 EINVAL Fatal signal blocked
VMK_NO_ACCESS 195887193 0xbad0059 EACCES Permission denied
VMK_NO_PERMISSION 195887194 0xbad005a EPERM Operation not permitted
VMK_UNDEFINED_SYSCALL 195887195 0xbad005b ENOSYS Undefined syscall
VMK_RESULT_TOO_LARGE 195887196 0xbad005c ERANGE Result too large
VMK_VLAN_FILTERED 195887197 0xbad005d ERANGE Pkts dropped because of VLAN (support) mismatch
VMK_BAD_EXCFRAME 195887198 0xbad005e EFAULT Unsafe exception frame
VMK_MODULE_NOT_LOADED 195887199 0xbad005f ENODEV Necessary module isn’t loaded
VMK_NO_SUCH_ZOMBIE 195887200 0xbad0060 ECHILD No dead world by that name
VMK_NO_SUCH_CARTEL 195887201 0xbad0061 ESRCH No cartel by that name
VMK_IS_A_SYMLINK 195887202 0xbad0062 ELOOP Is a symbolic link
VMK_CROSS_DEVICE_LINK 195887203 0xbad0063 EXDEV Cross-device link
VMK_NOT_A_SOCKET 195887204 0xbad0064 ENOTSOCK Not a socket
VMK_ILLEGAL_SEEK 195887205 0xbad0065 ESPIPE Illegal seek
VMK_ADDRFAM_UNSUPP 195887206 0xbad0066 EAFNOSUPPORT Unsupported address family
VMK_ALREADY_CONNECTED 195887207 0xbad0067 EISCONN Already connected
VMK_DEATH_PENDING 195887208 0xbad0068 ENOENT World is marked for death
VMK_NO_CELL_ASSIGNMENT 195887209 0xbad0069 EINVAL No valid scheduler cell assignment
VMK_CPU_MIN_INVALID 195887210 0xbad006a EINVAL Invalid cpu min
VMK_CPU_MINLIMIT_INVALID 195887211 0xbad006b EINVAL Invalid cpu minLimit
VMK_CPU_MAX_INVALID 195887212 0xbad006c EINVAL Invalid cpu max
VMK_CPU_SHARES_INVALID 195887213 0xbad006d EINVAL Invalid cpu shares
VMK_CPU_MIN_OVERFLOW 195887214 0xbad006e EINVAL Cpu min outside valid range
VMK_CPU_MINLIMIT_OVERFLOW 195887215 0xbad006f EINVAL Cpu minLimit outside valid range
VMK_CPU_MAX_OVERFLOW 195887216 0xbad0070 EINVAL Cpu max outside valid range
VMK_CPU_MIN_GT_MINLIMIT 195887217 0xbad0071 EINVAL Cpu min exceeds minLimit
VMK_CPU_MIN_GT_MAX 195887218 0xbad0072 EINVAL Cpu min exceeds max
VMK_CPU_MINLIMIT_LT_RESERVED 195887219 0xbad0073 ENOSPC Cpu minLimit less than cpu already reserved by children
VMK_CPU_MAX_LT_RESERVED 195887220 0xbad0074 ENOSPC Cpu max less than cpu already reserved by children
VMK_CPU_ADMIT_FAILED 195887221 0xbad0075 ENOSPC Admission check failed for cpu resource
VMK_MEM_MIN_INVALID 195887222 0xbad0076 EINVAL Invalid memory min
VMK_MEM_MINLIMIT_INVALID 195887223 0xbad0077 EINVAL Invalid memory minLimit
VMK_MEM_MAX_INVALID 195887224 0xbad0078 EINVAL Invalid memory max
VMK_MEM_MIN_OVERFLOW 195887225 0xbad0079 EINVAL Memory min outside valid range
VMK_MEM_MINLIMIT_OVERFLOW 195887226 0xbad007a EINVAL Memory minLimit outside valid range
VMK_MEM_MAX_OVERFLOW 195887227 0xbad007b EINVAL Memory max outside valid range
VMK_MEM_MIN_GT_MINLIMIT 195887228 0xbad007c EINVAL Memory min exceeds minLimit
VMK_MEM_MIN_GT_MAX 195887229 0xbad007d EINVAL Memory min exceeds max
VMK_MEM_MINLIMIT_LT_RESERVED 195887230 0xbad007e ENOSPC Memory minLimit less than memory already reserved by children
VMK_MEM_MAX_LT_RESERVED 195887231 0xbad007f ENOSPC Memory max less than memory already reserved by children
VMK_MEM_ADMIT_FAILED 195887232 0xbad0080 ENOSPC Admission check failed for memory resource
VMK_NO_SWAP_FILE 195887233 0xbad0081 ENOENT No swap file
VMK_BAD_PARAM_COUNT 195887234 0xbad0082 EINVAL Bad parameter count
VMK_BAD_PARAM_TYPE 195887235 0xbad0083 EINVAL Bad parameter type
VMK_UNMAP_RETRY 195887236 0xbad0084 ENOMEM Dueling unmaps (ok to retry)
VMK_INVALID_IOCTL 195887237 0xbad0085 ENOTTY Inappropriate ioctl for device
VMK_MAPFAULT_RETRY 195887238 0xbad0086 EBUSY Mmap changed under page fault (ok to retry)
VMK_EINPROGRESS 195887239 0xbad0087 EINPROGRESS Operation now in progress
VMK_ADDR_UNMAPPED 195887240 0xbad0088 EFAULT Address temporarily unmapped
VMK_INVALID_BUDDY_TYPE 195887241 0xbad0089 ENOMEM Invalid buddy type
VMK_LPAGE_INFO_NOT_FOUND 195887242 0xbad008a ENOMEM Large page info not found
VMK_LPAGE_INFO_INVALID 195887243 0xbad008b EINVAL Invalid large page info
VMK_SNAPSHOT_DEV 195887244 0xbad008c EIO SCSI LUN is in snapshot state
VMK_IN_TRANSITION 195887245 0xbad008d EIO SCSI LUN is in transition
VMK_TXN_FULL 195887246 0xbad008e ENOSPC Transaction ran out of lock space or log space
VMK_LOCK_NOT_FREE 195887247 0xbad008f EBUSY Lock was not free
VMK_NUM_FILES_EXCEEDED 195887248 0xbad0090 ENOSPC Exceed maximum number of files on the filesystem
VMK_MIGRATE_VMX_FAILURE 195887249 0xbad0091 EINVAL Migration determined a failure by the VMX
VMK_VSI_LIST_OVERFLOW 195887250 0xbad0092 EFBIG VSI GetList handler overflow
VMK_INVALID_WORLD 195887251 0xbad0093 EINVAL Invalid world
VMK_INVALID_VMM 195887252 0xbad0094 EINVAL Invalid vmm
VMK_INVALID_TXN 195887253 0xbad0095 EINVAL Invalid transaction
VMK_FS_RETRY_OPERATION 195887254 0xbad0096 EAGAIN Transient file system condition, suggest retry
VMK_VCPU_LIMIT_EXCEEDED 195887255 0xbad0097 EINVAL Number of running VCPUs limit exceeded
VMK_INVALID_METADATA 195887256 0xbad0098 EINVAL Invalid metadata
VMK_INVALID_PAGE_NUMBER 195887257 0xbad0099 EINVAL Invalid page number
VMK_NOT_EXEC 195887258 0xbad009a ENOEXEC Not in executable format
VMK_NFS_CONNECT_FAILURE 195887259 0xbad009b EHOSTDOWN Unable to connect to NFS server
VMK_NFS_MOUNT_NOT_SUPPORTED 195887260 0xbad009c EINVAL The NFS server does not support MOUNT version 3 over TCP
VMK_NFS_NFS_NOT_SUPPORTED 195887261 0xbad009d EINVAL The NFS server does not support NFS version 3 over TCP
VMK_NFS_MOUNT_DENIED 195887262 0xbad009e EPERM The mount request was denied by the NFS server. Check that the export exists and that the client is permitted to mount it
VMK_NFS_MOUNT_NOT_DIR 195887263 0xbad009f ENOTDIR The specified mount path was not a directory
VMK_NFS_BAD_FSINFO 195887264 0xbad00a0 EACCES Unable to query remote mount point’s attributes
VMK_NFS_VOLUME_LIMIT_EXCEEDED 195887265 0xbad00a1 EINVAL NFS has reached the maximum number of supported volumes
VMK_NO_MEMORY_NICE 195887266 0xbad00a2 ENOMEM Out of nice memory
VMK_MIGRATE_PREEMPTIVE_FAIL 195887267 0xbad00a3 ENOMEM VMotion failed to start due to lack of cpu or memory resources
VMK_CACHE_MISS 195887268 0xbad00a4 EFAULT Cache miss
VMK_STRESS_INDUCED_ERROR 195887269 0xbad00a5 EIO Error induced when stress options are enabled
VMK_TOO_MANY_LOCK_HOLDERS 195887270 0xbad00a6 EUSERS Maximum number of concurrent hosts are already accessing this resource
VMK_NO_JOURNAL 195887271 0xbad00a7 EIO Host doesn’t have a journal
VMK_RANK_VIOLATION 195887272 0xbad00a8 EDEADLK Lock rank violation detected
VMK_MODULE_FAILED 195887273 0xbad00a9 ENODEV Module failed
VMK_NO_MASTER_PTY 195887274 0xbad00aa ENXIO Unable to open slave if no master pty
VMK_NOT_IOABLE 195887275 0xbad00ab EFAULT Not IOAble
VMK_NO_FREE_INODES 195887276 0xbad00ac ENOSPC No free inodes
VMK_NO_MEMORY_FOR_FILEDATA 195887277 0xbad00ad ENOSPC No free memory for file data
VMK_NO_TAR_SPACE 195887278 0xbad00ae ENOSPC No free space to expand file or meta data
VMK_NO_FIFO_READER 195887279 0xbad00af ENXIO Unable to open writer if no fifo reader
VMK_NO_SUCH_DEVICE 195887280 0xbad00b0 EINVAL No underlying device for major,minor
VMK_MEM_MIN_GT_MEMSIZE 195887281 0xbad00b1 EINVAL Memory min exceeds memSize
VMK_NO_SUCH_VT 195887282 0xbad00b2 ENXIO No virtual terminal for number
VMK_TOO_MANY_ELEMENTS 195887283 0xbad00b3 E2BIG Too many elements for list
VMK_SHAREDAREA_MISMATCH 195887284 0xbad00b4 ENOSYS VMM<->VMK shared are mismatch
VMK_EXEC_FAILURE 195887285 0xbad00b5 ESRCH Failure during exec while original state already lost
VMK_VMNIXMOD_NOT_LOADED 195887286 0xbad00b6 ENOSYS vmnixmod kernel module not loaded
VMK_INVALID_MODULE 195887287 0xbad00b7 EINVAL Invalid module
VMK_UNALIGNED_ADDRESS 195887288 0xbad00b8 EINVAL Address is not aligned on page boundary
VMK_NOT_MAPPED 195887289 0xbad00b9 ENOMEM Address is not mapped in address space
VMK_NO_MESSAGE_SPACE 195887290 0xbad00ba ENOMEM No space to record a message
VMK_PDI_STACK_OVERFLOW 195887291 0xbad00bb EFBIG No space left on PDI stack
VMK_EXCEPTION_HANDLER_INVALID 195887292 0xbad00bc EINVAL Invalid exception handler
VMK_EXCEPTION_NOT_HANDLED 195887293 0xbad00bd EINVAL Exception not handled by exception handler
VMK_INVALID_MULTIWRITER_OBJECT 195887294 0xbad00be EDEADLK Can’t open sparse/TBZ files in multiwriter mode
VMK_STORAGE_RETRY_OPERATION 195887295 0xbad00bf EAGAIN Transient storage condition, suggest retry
VMK_HBA_ERROR 195887296 0xbad00c0 EIO Storage initiator error
VMK_TIMER_INIT_FAILED 195887297 0xbad00c1 EINVAL Timer initialization failed
VMK_MODULE_NOT_FOUND 195887298 0xbad00c2 ENOENT Module not found
VMK_NOT_SOCKET_OWNER 195887299 0xbad00c3 EINVAL Socket not owned by cartel
VMK_VSI_HANDLER_NOT_FOUND 195887300 0xbad00c4 ENOENT No VSI handler found for the requested node
VMK_INVALID_MMAPPROTFLAGS 195887301 0xbad00c5 EINVAL Invalid mmap protection flags
VMK_INVALID_MAPCONTIG_SIZE 195887302 0xbad00c6 EINVAL Invalid chunk size for contiguous mmap
VMK_INVALID_MAPCONTIG_MAX 195887303 0xbad00c7 EINVAL Invalid MPN max for contiguous mmap
VMK_INVALID_MAPCONTIG_FLAG 195887304 0xbad00c8 EINVAL Invalid mmap flag on contiguous mmap
VMK_NOT_LAZY_MMINFO 195887305 0xbad00c9 EINVAL Unexpected fault on pre-faulted memory region
VMK_MMINFO_WONT_SPLIT 195887306 0xbad00ca EINVAL Memory region cannot be split (remap/unmap)
VMK_NO_CACHE_INFO 195887307 0xbad00cb ENOENT Cache Information not available
VMK_CANNOT_REMAP_PINNED_MEMORY 195887308 0xbad00cc EINVAL Cannot remap pinned memory
VMK_NO_SUCH_CARTELGROUP 195887309 0xbad00cd ESRCH No cartel group by that name
VMK_SPLOCKSTATS_DISABLED 195887310 0xbad00ce EINVAL SPLock stats collection disabled
VMK_BAD_TAR_IMAGE 195887311 0xbad00cf EINVAL Boot image is corrupted
VMK_BRANCHED_ALREADY 195887312 0xbad00d0 EPERM Branched file cannot be modified
VMK_NAME_RESERVED_FOR_BRANCH 195887313 0xbad00d1 EPERM Name is reserved for branched file
VMK_CANNOT_BRANCH_UNLINKED 195887314 0xbad00d2 EPERM Unlinked file cannot be branched
VMK_MAX_RETRIES_EXCEEDED 195887315 0xbad00d3 EAGAIN Maximum kernel-level retries exceeded
VMK_OPTLOCK_STOLEN 195887316 0xbad00d4 EAGAIN Optimistic lock acquired by another host
VMK_NOT_MMAPABLE 195887317 0xbad00d5 ENODEV Object cannot be mmapped
VMK_INVALID_CPU_AFFINITY 195887318 0xbad00d6 EINVAL Invalid cpu affinity
VMK_DEVICE_NOT_PARTOF_LV 195887319 0xbad00d7 ENXIO Device does not contain a logical volume
VMK_NO_SPACE 195887320 0xbad00d8 ENOSPC No space left on device
VMK_VSI_INVALID_NODE_ID 195887321 0xbad00d9 EINVAL Invalid vsi node ID
VMK_TOO_MANY_USERS 195887322 0xbad00da EUSERS Too many users accessing this resource
VMK_EALREADY 195887323 0xbad00db EALREADY Operation already in progress
VMK_BUF_TOO_SMALL 195887324 0xbad00dc EINVAL Buffer too small to complete the operation
VMK_SNAPSHOT_DEV_DISALLOWED 195887325 0xbad00dd EACCES Snapshot device disallowed
VMK_LVM_DEVICE_UNREACHABLE 195887326 0xbad00de EIO LVM device unreachable
VMK_CPU_INVALID_RESOURCE_UNITS 195887327 0xbad00df EINVAL Invalid cpu resource units
VMK_MEM_INVALID_RESOURCE_UNITS 195887328 0xbad00e0 EINVAL Invalid memory resource units
VMK_ABORTED 195887329 0xbad00e1 ECANCELED IO was aborted
VMK_MEM_MIN_LT_RESERVED 195887330 0xbad00e2 ENOSPC Memory min less than memory already reserved by children
VMK_MEM_MIN_LT_CONSUMED 195887331 0xbad00e3 ENOSPC Memory min less than memory required to support current consumption
VMK_MEM_MAX_LT_CONSUMED 195887332 0xbad00e4 ENOSPC Memory max less than memory required to support current consumption
VMK_TIMEOUT_RETRY 195887333 0xbad00e5 ETIMEDOUT Timeout (ok to retry)
VMK_RESERVATION_LOST 195887334 0xbad00e6 EBUSY Reservation Lost
VMK_FS_STALE_METADATA 195887335 0xbad00e7 ENOENT Cached metadata is stale
VMK_NO_FCNTL_LOCK 195887336 0xbad00e8 ENOLCK No fcntl lock slot left
VMK_NO_FCNTL_LOCK_HOLDER 195887337 0xbad00e9 ENOLCK No fcntl lock holder slot left
VMK_NO_LICENSE 195887338 0xbad00ea EACCES Not licensed to access VMFS volumes
VMK_LVM_RETRY_OPERATION 195887339 0xbad00eb EAGAIN Transient LVM device condition, suggest retry
VMK_SNAPSHOT_LV_INCOMPLETE 195887340 0xbad00ec EAGAIN Snapshot LV incomplete
VMK_MEDIUM_NOT_FOUND 195887341 0xbad00ed EIO Medium not found
VMK_MAX_PATHS_CLAIMED 195887342 0xbad00ee ENOMEM Maximum allowed SCSI paths have already been claimed
VMK_NOT_MOUNTABLE 195887343 0xbad00ef ENODEV Filesystem is not mountable
VMK_MEMSIZE_GT_MEMSIZELIMIT 195887344 0xbad00f0 EINVAL Memory size exceeds memSizeLimit
VMK_GENERIC_LINUX_ERROR 732758016 0x2bad0000 EIO Generic service console error

VMware yet again, wins over Parallels…

They did it once with the Apple Mac – Fusion over Parallels. Now again in Linux.
Full details here: http://www.techthrob.com/tech/linux_virtualization.php

Virtualization in Linux: A Review of Four Software Choices
Introduction
This week Canonical, the company behind Ubuntu Linux, announced a partnership with Parallels, maker of the Virtualization products Parallels Workstation and Parallels Desktop for Mac. Consequently, the Parallels Workstation virtualization software is now available to download and install in Ubuntu Linux, completely supported by Canonical, and done entirely through the Add/Remove programs interface. This makes four different virtualization programs — three of which are installable via the package repositories — that run on Ubuntu Linux. (See the Correction: in the Installing VirtualBox section for more information)

This article compares four virtualization products available for Ubuntu Linux: the free, open source x86 emulator Qemu; the closed-but-free versions of VirtualBox and VMware-Server, and the commercial Parallels Workstation.

Installation
Installing Qemu
Installing Qemu is simple, with a twist: Qemu supports the KVM, or the Kernel Virtualization Machine, which enables it to use certain acceleration techniques that the other programs don’t use. As a result, we’re going to install a few extra packages along with the Qemu package itself: sudo apt-get install qemu qemu-launcher kvm kqemu-commonThe qemu-launcher is a graphical front-end to Qemu which we will see later; kvm and kqemu-common are the packages that allow Qemu to work with the Kernel’s Virtualization Machine. As a side note, the KVM will be installed by default and be fully supported in the next version of Ubuntu, Hardy Heron.

Installing Parallels
Installing any of these products is easy, but you may need to enable some extra repositories to install Parallels. To do this, go to your System Menu, and in the Administration submenu select “Software Sources.” Click on the “Third-Party Software” tab, and make sure that the line for “partner” software, “http://archive.canonical.com/ubuntu gusty partner” is selected:

Saving those changes, the package manager will update its lists, and you can now install Parallels, which comes in the logically named “parallels” package: sudo apt-get install parallelsInstalling Parallels will be a fun reminder of the Windows world for those who have become accustomed to Linux licencing – there’s a EULA (End User License Agreement) that must be clicked-past before you can install the program. Finally, once installed, you need to run Parallels and sign up for a 15-day free trial key — or purchase a key — assuming you don’t already have one.

Registration is quick and easy, requiring just a username and an email address; but it is another additional step you must take because of the software’s proprietary and commercial nature.

Installing VMware
To install VMware in Ubuntu, you’ll need to enable the “partner” repositories, just as you do for Parallels. Like Parallels, you’ll need to get a key from the VMware website, which you will be prompted for during installation. You’re required to submit a slew of personal information, but the key is given to you immediately (you don’t have to check your email for it, if you understand what I’m getting at). Unlike Parallels, this key is free for personal use, and does not expire.

Installing vmware can be done either through the graphical package manager (in the Third-Party section), or with the command: sudo apt-get install vmware-serverThe install is a bit lengthy compared to the other programs here, and the files are rather large (on the order of a hundred or so Megabytes), but all-in-all it’s a breeze as long as you have a fast connection.

Installing VirtualBox
Correction: The Open Source Edition (OSE) of VirtualBox is, in fact, available through the Ubuntu repositories, but that is not the version used here. Thanks to Daniel of ibeentoubuntu.blogspot.com for pointing this out!

VirtualBox is the one program that isn’t available via the Ubuntu repositories, but that doesn’t mean that installation is difficult. In fact, it’s as simple as going to the VirtualBox downloads page and downloading the appropriate package for your system. The menu for VirtualBox binaries is extensive, including multiple versions of Ubuntu, Debian, and Fedora, as well as some other distributions. For Ubuntu, select your version and architecture, and open it with the gdebi installer:

The package is a light-weight (compared to VMware) 17MB, and installs, thankfully, like any typical Ubuntu package: without prompting for any registration keys or personal information. This article will be looking the closed (but free) binary version of VirtualBox, not the Open Source Edition copy also available from the downloads page.

One caveat with VirtualBox: it requires that any users who will use the program be added to a special “vboxusers” group, so you’ll probably want to add yourself; and then you’ll have to logout and login for these changes to take affect. A minor annoyance, but an annoyance all the same.

User Interface – Creating and running virtual machines
VMware Server
Upon startup, the VMware Server Console will ask whether you want to connect to a local or remote server; in this test, I am using server on my local machine, but VMware can also be run over a network. Creating a new virtual machine is done via a wizard, which is simple enough for a beginner to use, but has enough customization options that an advanced user won’t feel restricted.

One problem I encountered, however, was that even after selecting Windows 2000 as my guest operating system, the wizard still recommended I use an emulated SCSI drive instead of IDE. I followed its advice, and the Windows 2000 install program wasn’t able to recognize any hard drives; it took me a while, but with the help of some kind people in the Ubuntu IRC chats I was able to correct the problem. Still, I was surprised that VMware made this mistake.

Running a Virtual Machine inside VMware is as simple as selecting the machine you want from the “Inventory” column, and clicking the “power on” button. Unlike its competitors, the Virtual Machine runs inside the VMware Server Console, instead of in a separate window. The Console also has the ability to run in a Kiosk-like mode called “Quick Switch”, which could be useful if you are using a dedicated machine for virtualization.

Adding additional hardware, or editing existing hardware, is simple and easy to do in VMware, and in my case the program auto-detected all of my physical devices correctly, and was able to map them to the guest OS without any problems.

VirtualBox
VirtualBox’s interface is written in QT, so it may look and feel a little out of place on a Gnome desktop. Anyone who’s ever used a KDE application in Gnome knows that it will function perfectly fine, however, even if it doesn’t quite look exactly right. VirtualBox doesn’t add itself to the Gnome menus by default, however, unlike the other three applications here (Parallels and VMware add themselves to the System Tools menu, while Qemu-Launcher places itself in Applications), so I loaded it up using the terminal command “VirtualBox”.

The VirtualBox user interface is the cleanest of all the applications I’ve looked at. Its wizard for adding a new Virtual Machine is elegant and effective, while its menu for editing an existing machine is the most user-friendly of all four programs.

VirtualBox’s own Preferences window is the most minimal of the bunch, allowing you to configure certain basic options such as the key combinations for focus grab/release, and the default language; unlike Parallels and VMware, it does not allow you to set a maximum amount of memory to allocate for the entire application as a whole.

Parallels
Like the other Virtualization clients, Parallels’ interface is sleek, polished, and user-friendly. Like VirtualBox, it’s written in QT, so it will feel at home on KDE, while working just fine in a Gnome environment.

Like the applications we’ve seen already, Parallels comes with a Virtual Machine Wizard which will take you through all the steps to create a new Virtual Machine, from the type of operating system you plan on running, to the amount of memory to allocate, to the size of the virtual hard disk you want to use. Modifying an already existing hardware configuration is as simple and straight-forward as in VMware.

Qemu-Launcher
Note: After writing this review I was told about the Qemulator program, which behaves similarly to the other applications’ interfaces. I will be adding a section on this program soon.

In contrast to the Virtual Machine Wizards and the sleek interfaces of the other programs, the Qemu-Launcher, which is your best chance at a GUI when it comes to using Qemu (another option, especially for KDE users is qtemu), is sorely lacking any user-friendly features, and will surely intimidate the beginner. The Qemu Launcher is divided into five main tabs. The main tab is where you select your Virtual Machine, its hard drive, how much memory to allocate to it, and whether you want to boot off the CD-ROM (for installation of an operating system). The Hardware tab allows you to select things like the type and number of processors to use, what kind of video to emulate, and whether you want to use full-screen or windowed mode.

In the Emulator tab you can enable logging, but most importantly you can enable Acceleration. With the additional packages installed, you want to select “Full Acceleration” for the best performance. You can also set the process priority, which will “nice” the process to give other programs priority (or, optionally, to give the virtual machine priority over other processes). A higher number here means a lower priority, the highest being 19.

Aside from the difficulties in configuring a new virtual machine in Qemu, I’ve found the launcher to be somewhat of a hindrance. Since it is simply a front-end for Qemu’s command-line interface, and it is incomplete at best, there are times when it doesn’t work as expected. For example, if you set amount of RAM to be dedicated to the virtual machine too high and Qemu can’t allocate enough memory, clicking the “Launch” button will do absolutely nothing. It won’t give you an error, but instead, will do nothing at all. The only way to figure out the problem is to launch qemu-launcher in a terminal, and look for the error to be written there.

Performance
Once your virtual machine is setup, the aspect of virtualization that really matters is how well things run. I tested Windows 2000 Professional, using 360MB of RAM and 2GB hard drive files, on a Pentium 4 2.6Ghz host system. To make things as fair as possible, I restarted my computer after each trial, and didn’t use any other functions while testing the virtualizers.

VMware Server
VMware was incredibly impressive in its performance; installing Windows 2000 Professional took only 15 minutes, and booting into the new operating system after a fresh install took under a minute.

Once inside Windows 2000, I found applications to be as quick and responsive as if they were running natively on real hardware. Not once did I hit swap, which would have really slowed things down.

VirtualBox
VirtualBox proved itself as strong a contender as its heavyweight challenger, VMware. Installation took exactly the same time (15 minutes) from start to finish, with a few seconds margin of error for user-interaction.

Once booted, Windows performed like a champion inside VirtualBox, and felt even snappier than in VMware. I did notice some flickering inside the virtualization that wasn’t present in VMware, especially when maximizing/minimizing windows, or doing anything involving transparency (for example, dragging an icon about the desktop), but nothing that would hinder the user experience. VirtualBox is the only application reviewed that allowed me to set a size for video memory, so I left this at its default of 8MB.

Parallels
Surprisingly, the commercial Parallels application did not do as well as its contenders in this part of the test. From beginning to end, installing Windows took twenty-seven minutes, or 180% of the time it took in VirtualBox or VMware. This was surprising and disappointing, and once inside Windows I found its performance to be lacking, as well.

Booting up took considerably longer than in either of the other applications – to be sure, I ran this test several times. Unlike VirtaulBox and VMware, applications were not as responsive one would expect on real hardware; it was obvious that the operating system was running within a virtualized environment. Along with maxing out my CPU, Parallels inexplicably began using my swap partition although there were several hundred megabytes of real memory free on my system. While I can’t necessarily attribute this to a problem in Parallels, it does greatly slow things down, and is rather unexpected. Video performance was lack-luster; menus flicker as they scroll, and there is a noticeable delay when drawing windows. Overall, Parallels wasn’t impressive in its performance, to the point that I wonder if there is a bug in its default configuration on Ubuntu.

Qemu
Note: A few people have mentioned in forums that you should start your Qemu virtual machine (or you can just start the launcher itself) in a terminal, in order to make sure that full KVM support is working. I did that in these tests, and didn’t get any errors from KVM/kqemu so I am assuming that it acceleration was working correctly (set to “Full”).

Qemu was interesting in that, instead of using my physical processor as the processor for the Virtual Machine, it emulated a Pentium II. This may have something to do with the fact that Qemu, unlike the other applications here, is not a true Virtualization platform; it is an x86 emulation platform, capable of full virtualization.

Qemu took just under 25 minutes to install Windows 2000, coming in well behind VirtualBox and VMware, but beating out Parallels. While video performance was acceptable, there was a noticeable lag in opening applications inside the virtualized Windows platform. Qemu also was the only application in which I wasn’t able to get sound to work inside the guest operating system (the other applications set this up out of the box). Lastly, my biggest complaint by far is that Qemu continued to eat up CPU time even when the virtual machine was idle; I didn’t experience this problem with any of the other applications. These problems severely hinder Qemu’s ability to compete.

Conclusions
This article looked at four different products for virtualization in Linux, specifically Ubuntu Linux. The findings were interesting – the only product that requires the purchase of a licence for personal use, Parallels, actually performed the worst of the group. Qemu did well for a completely free-as-in-speech application, although VMware and VirtualBox blew the competition away in terms of performance.

Of these applications, VMware and VirtualBox definitely come out the clear winners. For individual use, where the ability to run a single Windows desktop inside of Linux is all that is needed, VirtualBox turns out to be my preference. It’s much smaller than VMware, which comes packed with extra features that aren’t necesary for the end-user. If your needs are different, however, you’ll probably want to give VMware a closer look. Overall, the maturaty and stability of all four applications was impressive enough to call virtualization on the Linux desktop “complete.” So they should start promoting that big time with buy followers.

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